Carmen Bambach similarly argues that the Peruzzi Madonna is by Raphael, at least in part, proclaiming the painting to be “an archaeological object of major historical significance” (op. cit., p. 70). Bambach draws particular attention to the presence of freehand overdrawing that is visible to the naked eye but does not correspond to what is seen in the infrared reflectographs. The scholar suggests that this fine drawing appears to have been executed in metalpoint, a technique that Raphael frequently used for his preparatory designs. To Bambach, these metalpoint outlines “seem to correct, or supplement, the dotted outlines obtained from the cartoon that were then painted. In contrast to the paint layers, the quality of execution of these small bits of metalpoint overdrawing seem to me to be of extremely high quality, good enough to be by Raphael himself.” (ibid.). She compares the technique to Raphael’s metalpoint Study for a Child’s Head of c. 1505-6 in the Städel Museum, Frankfurt am Main (fig. 11), a drawing that was previously owned by Johann David Passavant and was used by that scholar as one of the lynchpins for securing the attribution of the Peruzzi Madonna to Raphael (loc. cit.). Bambach further notes that the painted passages of the Christ Child’s body and face, including the nuanced foreshortening of his ear, seem to her to be more refined than other parts of the painting, concluding that “it may well be that Raphael also painted the passages in the Christ Child’s figure that seem of higher quality” (op. cit., p. 72). Accordingly, Bambach hypothetically reconstructs the history of the Peruzzi Madonna as follows: after completing the Small Cowper Madonna (a painting that was begun with a pricked cartoon, then elaborated with additional freehand underdrawing and then completed with paint), Raphael subsequently gave away his cartoon to another artist “who attempted to create from it his own painting. Raphael’s original cartoon first used in the Washington Small Cowper Madonna was probably very schematic, limited to the figural design, without the landscape. Thus, when the painter of the Peruzzi Madonna ran into trouble, he may have turned to Raphael again for assistance, who may have himself corrected the design by redrawing part of it freehand in metalpoint on the upper pigment layer.” (ibid., pp. 72-73). Noting that the Infrared reflectogram of the Peruzzi Madonna reveals a horizontal axis line, a feature frequently found in Raphael’s autograph paintings, she concludes that “The picture may have finally been abandoned, unfinished, as the artist in Raphael’s circle lost confidence in its execution.” (ibid., p. 73). . Raffaello Tancredi (Resina, 1837 – Naples, 1916) was an Italian painter, mainly of historical subjects. Biography He was a pupil of the Academy of Fine Arts of Naples , obtains a three-year (1864–67) state-funded stipend to travel to Florence ; in 1868 he exhibited a canvas: Buoso da Doaro recognized by his fellow citizens.. Father Gratien Alabi, the parish priest of the town of Ca Raffaello in the province of Arezzo, has been arrested in Rome. From the start Father Gratien, a native of Africa, has been the chief suspect in the Guerrina Piscaglia case..